The International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) and ISO/IEC 18745 standard series are the international test standards for functional validation of electronics Machine Readable Travel Documents (eMRTD) and associated Inspection Systems.

ePassport & ID

EMVCo is the global technical body for payment cards, mobiles and readers based on contact and contactless smart card technologies.


The CEN/TS 16794-2 is the European testing standard (Layers 1 to 4) for validation of contactless fare terminals and medias used in public transport.

CIPURSE is an open standard to build an application for transit fare media.


NFC Forum specifies international testing standards for functional validation at the analog and digital protocol levels of phones, smart cards, devices and other systems implementing the NFC protocol in 13.56 Mhz contactless communications.


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